WFAS International symposium on Acupuncture, OSLO 2003

                                     September 12th`14th 2003

Tokyo, Japan

Acupuncture, Moxibustion and Judo Therapy Clinic

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Clinic Director Mitsunori, Seino

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Theoretical Studies on Oriental Medicine:

Third Report

Seeking the Origin of Oriental Medicine in the Theory of g I ˆÕh

 

 

Introduction

              Current research into the academic system of the fields of oriental medicine related in particular to acupuncture, moxibustion and herbal medicine is not properly based on oriental concepts (Chinese philosophy). Furthermore, the discrepancies between theoretical and clinical aspects of oriental medicine (the medical arts of acupuncture and moxibustion) seem to impede the further development of oriental medicine. I recognize that there is currently lack of a direct connection between oriental medicine as it is practiced today and clinical/practical aspects of oriental medical acupuncture and moxibustion as described@in the classical texts of oriental medicine. I therefore strongly believe that such a connection needs to be built and acknowledged.

I have@developed a common language for the theory and practice of oriental medicine. In order to allow its recognition to resolve prevailing discrepancies, a discussion of the theory of gI ˆÕh as the origin of the ideographic culture is considered essential. Below I will briefly discuss the theoretical basis, which is currently being developed to explain this common language.

 

Methods

              The most valid theory pertaining to the establishment of gIˆÕh holds that ggua ŒTh(designations) were introduced through Fuyi •š‹V and the" tuan œ`" (tuanci œ`Ž« = guanckaji ŒTŽ«) by Wén Wáng •¶‰¤, while "yaoà©"iyaoci੎«jhas been attributed to the Zhōu GongŽüŒö and the Shí yì \—ƒ(comprising two chapters of the "tuanzhuan", two chapters of the g xiangzhuanh, the "wenyanzhuan", two chapters of the "xicizhuan", the "shuoguazhuan", the "xuguazhuan", and the "zaguanzhuan") to Confucius EŽq; however, no complete forms of these texts have survived. Therefore, the "Shí sān jing zhù shú \ŽOŒo’‘`" version compiled by Wáng Bí ‰¤•Jis considered to be the definitive text on this subject.

              I examined the concepts of gI ˆÕh via taiji ‘¾‹É which gives rise to the patterns liangyi—¼‹V, sixiangŽlÛ and bagua”ªŒT, which in turn create eight signs( qianŠ£Edui™[Eli—£EzhenkExun’FEkanšªEgen¯Ekun £).Based on this, I then examined views and concepts of the human body and diseases in oriental medicine.

 

Results

Oriental medicine has been established upon a theoretical system based on the concepts of gIˆÕh, applying the Yin-Yang theory gyinyanglun‰A—z˜_h to the field of medicine. This theory interprets the body as a collection of gqi‹Ch forces, allowing the practitioner to comprehend diseases by observing the interplay of the two forces Yin and Yang gyinyang‰A—zh. A detailed examination of the text reveals that the "xicizhuanŒqŽ«“`" of the gI ChingˆÕŒoh provides the following explanation: eIn gIˆÕh there is the Tai Chi (taiji ‘¾‹É) giving rise to the two polar forces (liangyi —¼‹V). These forces create the four patterns (sixiangŽlÛ) and these again give rise to the eight signs ( bagua”ªŒT).f When this concept is applied to medicine, the Tai Chi@‘¾‹É represents man, who can be interpreted in terms of interactions between the two forces of Yin and Yang. gThe two forces hliangyi—¼‹Vh give rise to the four patterns gsixiangŽlÛh representing waning Yin glaoyi n˜V‰Ah, waning Yang glaiyang˜V—zh, rising Yin gxiaoyin¬‰Ah and rising Yang gxiaoyang¬—zh. Waning Yin ˜V‰Arefers to the Yin‰A element within Yin‰A, and waning Yang˜V—z the Yang—z element within Yang—z, while rising Yin¬‰A refers to the Yin ‰Aaspect within Yang—z and rising Yang ¬—zto the Yang—z aspect within Yin‰A. Oriental medicine uses pairs of opposing terms like deficiency-excess gxu-shi‹•ŽÀh, cold - hot@ghan-re Š¦”Mh

 etc., based on the Yin-Yang theory, in order to comprehend the body, while in I ˆÕ deficiency gxu‹•h is used in the sense of gYin‰Ah, and excess gshiŽÀh in the sense of gYang—zh. Substituting these characters with terms that are easier to comprehend, when applied to oriental medicine the four patterns gsixian gŽlÛh are expressed as Yin deficiency gyinxu‰A‹•h, Yang  excess gyangshi—zŽÀh, Yin excess gyinsh i‰AŽÀh and Yang deficiency gyangxu—z‹•h. The expression gthe four patternsh gsixiang ŽlÛh give rise to the eight signs called gbagua”ªŒTh. gbagua”ªŒTh consists of: qianŠ£Edui™[Eli—£EzhenkExun’FEkanšªEgen¯Ekun@£. This indicates that the eight signs of the I ChingˆÕŒocan be applied to oriental medicine. A classification of oriental medicine based on concepts like Yin-Yang, the three powers, the five elements and the eight diagnostic classifications yinyang‰A—zEsancaiŽOËEwuxingŒÜsEbagang ”ªjis by itself derived from the concepts of the eight signs. Thus, these concepts of oriental philosophy can be considered the origin of oriental medicine.

 

Discussion

Examination of the Su Wen of the Yellow Emperorfs Classic of Internal Medicine gsuwen w‘f–âxh, which is based on the concepts of gTai Chih, gDual Forcesh, gFour Patternsh and the gEight Signsh gtaiji ‘¾‹Éh gliangyi —¼‹Vh gsixiang ŽlÛh gbagua ”ªŒTh, clearly reveals the concepts underlying the five element chart. Man as an aggregate of Qi ‹C(Tai Chi‘¾‹É) is divided into male and female (dual forces ) (liangyi—¼‹V) among which the repetitive appearances of Yin deficiency‰A‹•, Yang excess—zŽÀ, Yin excess‰AŽÀ and Yang deficiency —z‹•(four patterns) gsixiangŽlÛh are considered to oscillate between states of health and disease (eight signs)ibagua”ªŒTj.

 

Conclusions

The concepts of gI ˆÕh can be applied to observation of the body and comprehension of diseases. To put this into medical terms it is thought that the body sustains life during all transitions from health through states of disease until death (life/fate = life [force] carried from life to death) through manifestations of the four gxiangÛ h patterns, Yin deficiency, Yang excess, Yin excess and Yang deficiency (yinxu ‰A‹•, yangshi—zŽÀ, yinshi ‰AŽÀ and yangxu —z‹•), manifestations of Qi@‹C forming the body. The concept of these patterns (xiang@Û) can also be applied to oriental medicine based on modern medical diagnosis. It further appears feasible to develop a system of acupuncture and moxibustion comprising both the theoretical aspects of oriental medicine and the clinical and technical aspects of acupuncture and moxibustion. The theory of gI ˆÕh is essential to the development of the medical science and practice of acupuncture and moxibustion.