WFAS International symposium on Acupuncture, OSLO 2003
September 12th`14th 2003
Acupuncture, Moxibustion and Judo Therapy Clinic
Clinic Director Mitsunori, Seino
Current research into the academic system of the fields of oriental medicine related in particular to acupuncture, moxibustion and herbal medicine is not properly based on oriental concepts (Chinese philosophy). Furthermore, the discrepancies between theoretical and clinical aspects of oriental medicine (the medical arts of acupuncture and moxibustion) seem to impede the further development of oriental medicine. I recognize that there is currently lack of a direct connection between oriental medicine as it is practiced today and clinical/practical aspects of oriental medical acupuncture and moxibustion as described@in the classical texts of oriental medicine. I therefore strongly believe that such a connection needs to be built and acknowledged.
I have@developed a common language for the theory and practice of oriental medicine. In order to allow its recognition to resolve prevailing discrepancies, a discussion of the theory of gI Õh as the origin of the ideographic culture is considered essential. Below I will briefly discuss the theoretical basis, which is currently being developed to explain this common language.
The most valid theory pertaining to the establishment of gIÕh holds that ggua Th(designations) were introduced through Fuyi V and the" tuan `" (tuanci `« = guanckaji T«) by Wén Wáng ¶¤, while "yaoà©"iyaocià©«jhas been attributed to the Zhōu Gongüö and the Shí yì \(comprising two chapters of the "tuanzhuan", two chapters of the g xiangzhuanh, the "wenyanzhuan", two chapters of the "xicizhuan", the "shuoguazhuan", the "xuguazhuan", and the "zaguanzhuan") to Confucius Eq; however, no complete forms of these texts have survived. Therefore, the "Shí sān jing zhù shú \Oo`" version compiled by Wáng Bí ¤Jis considered to be the definitive text on this subject.
I examined the concepts of gI Õh via taiji ¾É which gives rise to the patterns liangyi¼V, sixianglÛ and baguaªT, which in turn create eight signs( qian£Edui[Eli£EzhenkExunFEkanªEgen¯Ekun £).Based on this, I then examined views and concepts of the human body and diseases in oriental medicine.
Oriental medicine has been established upon a theoretical system based on the concepts of gIÕh, applying the Yin-Yang theory gyinyanglunAz_h to the field of medicine. This theory interprets the body as a collection of gqiCh forces, allowing the practitioner to comprehend diseases by observing the interplay of the two forces Yin and Yang gyinyangAzh. A detailed examination of the text reveals that the "xicizhuanq«`" of the gI ChingÕoh provides the following explanation: eIn gIÕh there is the Tai Chi (taiji ¾É) giving rise to the two polar forces (liangyi ¼V). These forces create the four patterns (sixianglÛ) and these again give rise to the eight signs ( baguaªT).f When this concept is applied to medicine, the Tai Chi@¾É represents man, who can be interpreted in terms of interactions between the two forces of Yin and Yang. gThe two forces hliangyi¼Vh give rise to the four patterns gsixianglÛh representing waning Yin glaoyi nVAh, waning Yang glaiyangVzh, rising Yin gxiaoyin¬Ah and rising Yang gxiaoyang¬zh. Waning Yin VArefers to the YinA element within YinA, and waning YangVz the Yangz element within Yangz, while rising Yin¬A refers to the Yin Aaspect within Yangz and rising Yang ¬zto the Yangz aspect within YinA. Oriental medicine uses pairs of opposing terms like deficiency-excess gxu-shiÀh, cold - hot@ghan-re ¦Mh
etc., based on the Yin-Yang theory, in order to comprehend the body, while in I Õ deficiency gxuh is used in the sense of gYinAh, and excess gshiÀh in the sense of gYangzh. Substituting these characters with terms that are easier to comprehend, when applied to oriental medicine the four patterns gsixian glÛh are expressed as Yin deficiency gyinxuAh, Yang excess gyangshizÀh, Yin excess gyinsh iAÀh and Yang deficiency gyangxuzh. The expression gthe four patternsh gsixiang lÛh give rise to the eight signs called gbaguaªTh. gbaguaªTh consists of: qian£Edui[Eli£EzhenkExunFEkanªEgen¯Ekun@£. This indicates that the eight signs of the I ChingÕocan be applied to oriental medicine. A classification of oriental medicine based on concepts like Yin-Yang, the three powers, the five elements and the eight diagnostic classifications yinyangAzEsancaiOËEwuxingÜsEbagang ªjis by itself derived from the concepts of the eight signs. Thus, these concepts of oriental philosophy can be considered the origin of oriental medicine.
Examination of the Su Wen of the Yellow Emperorfs Classic of Internal Medicine gsuwen wfâxh, which is based on the concepts of gTai Chih, gDual Forcesh, gFour Patternsh and the gEight Signsh gtaiji ¾Éh gliangyi ¼Vh gsixiang lÛh gbagua ªTh, clearly reveals the concepts underlying the five element chart. Man as an aggregate of Qi C(Tai Chi¾É) is divided into male and female (dual forces ) (liangyi¼V) among which the repetitive appearances of Yin deficiencyA, Yang excesszÀ, Yin excessAÀ and Yang deficiency z(four patterns) gsixianglÛh are considered to oscillate between states of health and disease (eight signs)ibaguaªTj.
The concepts of gI Õh can be applied to observation of the body and comprehension of diseases. To put this into medical terms it is thought that the body sustains life during all transitions from health through states of disease until death (life/fate = life [force] carried from life to death) through manifestations of the four gxiangÛ h patterns, Yin deficiency, Yang excess, Yin excess and Yang deficiency (yinxu A, yangshizÀ, yinshi AÀ and yangxu z), manifestations of Qi@C forming the body. The concept of these patterns (xiang@Û) can also be applied to oriental medicine based on modern medical diagnosis. It further appears feasible to develop a system of acupuncture and moxibustion comprising both the theoretical aspects of oriental medicine and the clinical and technical aspects of acupuncture and moxibustion. The theory of gI Õh is essential to the development of the medical science and practice of acupuncture and moxibustion.